By Katy Gardner, David Lewis
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Extra resources for Anthropology and Development: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century
As we shall see in the rest of this book, the anthropology of development was to offer fertile ground for these new directions. We shall return to what happened to the ‘crisis of postmodernity’ in anthropology at the end of this chapter. First, let us move development from the 1990s into the twenty-first century. Global changes and continuities As we noted in the Foreword, since 1996 many things have changed within the world of development. Global inequalities are worsening and wealth is increasingly concentrated, while the spread of capital and its interconnections are transforming much of the globe.
Launching the report, OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría called for governments to adopt strategies for ‘inclusive growth’ and warned that ‘the social contract is starting to unravel in many countries’. In January 2014, a report by Oxfam International on global inequality entitled Working for the Few (Fuentes-Nieva and Galasso, 2014) highlighted the ways in which rich elites have systematically captured economic opportunities through financial deregulation, tax evasion and other forms of self-interested political manipulation.
By the late 1960s, after many previously French and British colonies had gained independence, aid programmes expanded rapidly. Indeed, rich donor countries actually began to come into competition with each other in their efforts to provide assistance to poor countries, a clear sign of the economic and political benefits which accompanied aid. Keen to improve Gardner T02723 01 text 16 16/12/2014 11:14 Understanding Development 17 their product, many now stressed development, instigating grandiose and prestigious schemes.