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Int. , 43, 1291. F. I. (2003) Angew. , 115, 802; (2003) Angew. Chem. Int. , 42, 778. Anderson, S. L. Templates in Organic Synthesis: Definitions and Roles, in Ref. 34e,. -P. and Dietrich-Buchecker, C. (eds) (1999) Molecular Catenanes, Rotaxanes, and Knots, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim. -P. (1990) Acc. Chem. Y. (2001) Angew. , 113, 1586; (2001) Angew. Chem. Int. -P. (2003) J. Am. Chem. , 125, 2016. (a) Diederich, F. (1990) J. Chem. , and Tonellato, U. (1992) J. Phys. Org. -M. (1994) Appl. Catal.

Instead, much simpler mechanisms must have existed in the early world. In order to find an answer, several research groups provided evidence that short DNA oligomers are indeed able to self-replicate in the presence of the appropriate template [47]. Later, suitable α-helical peptides were also shown to self-replicate [48]. 5 A minimal self-replicating system. In the presence of template A, the two reactands on the left are organized in a way suitable for a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The pyridineamide part of the template recognizes the acid substituent in the N O B reactand, while the second reactand is recognized by the carboxylic acid incorporated in the template.

Such a positional switch was realized by Leigh et al. The idea was to introduce three binding sites located on a larger ring, and the ability to control the affinity of a smaller wheel to the individual stations sequentially, to move the smaller wheel in discrete steps between these binding sites in one direction. In fact, the small ring in this [2]catenane moves with high positional integrity but without control over its direction of motion. Only with the implementation of a fourth binding site and the use of a second smaller wheel, was a unidirectional motion around the larger ring induced, since the two rings in the [3]catenane mutually block each other’s movement to ensure an overall stimuli [65].

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