By Richard Öhlinger, Andreas Adler (auth.), Antonio Logrieco, Angelo Visconti (eds.)
The becoming curiosity in health and wellbeing hazards linked to toxigenic fungi and similar mycotoxins has resulted in the improvement of a couple of examine initiatives prior to now decade in numerous eu nations and loads of info has been produced at the traditional incidence of mycotoxins in vegetation, meals and feeds. the diversities in environmental stipulations (temperature, gentle, rainfall and so forth. ) and in uncovered cultivated vegetation (type of cereals, cultivars and so on. ) within the certain ecu nations have considerably motivated the distribution of particular toxigenic fungi and similar mycotoxicological difficulties. additionally, biogeographically established lineages inside a few vital toxigenic fungi were lately found, of reproductive isolation. Transglobal displaying an extended evolutionary background transposition of plant items turns out to have considerably contributed to the spreading of toxigenic species and lineages around the world. accordingly, the migration of agriculturally very important toxigenic fungi generated via exchange exchanges might symbolize a big resource of inoculum for brand spanking new plant ailments in Europe and for a much wider genetic range of neighborhood populations. It was once our aim to supply the reader with an replace of researches and surveys at the traditional prevalence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins played at a eu point over the last 5-10 years. The editors are super thankful to the EU-COST-835 "Agriculturally very important toxigenic fungi" for the monetary aid that allowed a few ecu scientists to satisfy numerous instances over the last 5 years to collaborate and trade information regarding study advances on toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins.
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Extra resources for An Overview on Toxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Europe
1999). Mycological contamination of stored herbal drugs, Acta Pharmaceutica, 49, 201-209. , & Cvetni6, Z. (1979). The prevalence of Mycromyces on cereals and other crops in the vegetation growing in a region of endemic nephropathy in Middle Posavina, Lijecnicki Vjesnik, 101, 525-530. Eppley, R. (1968). Screening method for zearalenone, aflatoxin and ochratoxin, Journal of the Association of Analytical Chemists, 51, 74-78. , & Huit, K. (1991). , & Bartsch, H. (Editors). Mycotoxins: endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours.
In the ochratoxin group, ochratoxin A (OTA) is most frequently found in cereals from tropical and temperate countries. It is mainly produced by some Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Ochratoxin A showed nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, neurotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic potential in all experimental animals. Due to a similarity of kidney damage in OTA-induced porcine nephropathy, this toxin has been proposed as one of the causative agents of endemic nephropathy. This kidney disease occurs in some regions of Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Croatia (Middle Posavina).
C Q. , ... ='"... c::: <5" 0 ';: I- 'C:; ~ ~ Figure 3. Mycological contamination of stored wheat, oat, barley and rye collected in the non-endemic (non-EN) and endemic (EN) regions over the period 1975-2001. S. PEPELJNJAK & M. ;: " ~ ~ ... s= ... 0 Figure 4. 3. Animal Feed In the last decade samples of maize for animal feed and mixed feed were also mycologicaly analysed. In these samples (Figure 4) the prevalence of fusaria was found as well (42,3 and 29,6% respectively). Fusarium species as field fungi are most frequent contaminants of maize and other cereals in the vegetation phase with continual development in storage conditions.