By B. Guy Peters
Vital additions to this 10th version comprise multiplied discussions of coverage tools, the demanding situations for public policymakers offered via the continued gridlock in Washington, the cheap Care Act, larger schooling investment, reproductive rights, and homosexual rights. New insurance of fracking controversies, race and racial profiling, and the legalization of marijuana retains scholars brand new with contemporary coverage debates and concerns. New to this variation: *The 10th variation contains accelerated and up to date discussions of *policy tools; *gridlock in Washington and the demanding situations for public coverage makers; *continuing responses to the 2008 fiscal hindrance; *the cheap Care Act; *higher schooling investment and the coed debt obstacle; *reproductive rights; and *gay rights. *New to the amount is a overview of fracking controversies and attendant alterations in power regulations, problems with race and racial profiling in legislation enforcement coverage, and the legalization of marijuana. *Updated tables and charts ascertain scholars have entry to the newest info within the box and new photographs illustrate small print.
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Additional info for American Public Policy: Promise and Performance
Instead, citizens would have every incentive to be free riders and to enjoy the benefits of the service without paying the cost. In such a situation government has a remedy for the problem: It can force payment through its taxation powers. Externalities are said to exist when the activities of one economic unit affect the well-being of another and no compensation is paid for benefits or costs created externally. 21 Pollution is the classic example of an externality. It is a by-product of the production process, but its social costs are excluded from the selling price of the products made by that process.
If a problem can be excluded from consideration, then those who benefit from the status quo are assured of victory. It is only when a problem is placed on the agenda and made available for discussion that the forces of change have any opportunity. The second kind of agenda that Cobb and Elder discuss is the institutional agenda-''that set of items explicitly up for active and serious consideration of authoritative decision-makers:' 5 An institutional agenda is then composed of the issues that those in power actually are considering acting on.
Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce]. Oppenheimer, 2d ed. : Congressional Quarterly Press, I98I), I75-79· I6. : Congressional Quarterly Press, I982). The Structure of Policymaking in American Government 17. See Robert E. Goodin, "The Logic of Bureaucratic Backscratching;' Public Choice, 1975, 53-68. 18. Rufus E. " Public Administration Review, March/April 1979, 103-10. 19. Hugh Heclo, "Issue Networks"; and A. Grant Jordan, "Iron Triangles:' 20. Richard Rose and Guy Peters, Can Government Go Bankrupt? (New York: Basic Books, 1978).