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By B. Reddy

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It was found that MCC required a longer time to be hydrolyzed with to nano whiskers. 5% (w/w), acid to cellulose ratio of 10 mL/g, and 130 min hydrolysis at 44 ˚C followed by approximately 30 min ultrasonic treatment, which produced whiskers of 200 to 400 nm in length and less than 10 nm in width and a yield of 30% of the initial weight. In the above mentioned studies, different ultrasonic treatment times were reported to obtain well separated whiskers. This was probably due to the non-uniform concentration and volume of whiskers suspension as well as various ultrasonic equipment and output.

Holbery, J. & Li, K. C. (2009). A technique for production of nanocrystalline cellulose with a narrow size distribution. ; Roman, M. & Gray, D. G. (2005). Effect of reaction conditions on the properties and behavior of wood cellulose nanocrystal suspensions. ; Capadona, J. R. & Weder, C. (2007). Preparation of Homogeneous dispersions of tunicate cellulose whiskers in organic solvents. Biomacromolecules, 8, 4, 1353-1357 Bicerano, J. & Brewbaker, J. L. (1995). Reinforcement of polyurethane elastomers with microfibers having varing aspect ratios.

2005) also investigated the effect of hydrolysis time on the properties and behaviors of cellulose nano whiskers. A black spruce sulfite pulp and bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp were treated with 64% (w/w) sulfuric acid at 45 ˚C. It was shown that longer hydrolysis time produced shorter, less polydispersed whiskers while increased acid to cellulose ratios reduced whiskers dimensions. To optimize the isolation of cellulose nano whiskers, Bondeson et al. (2006) performed a series of acid hydrolysis experiments with MCC prepared from Norway spruce sulfite pulp using a response surface methodology.

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