By Rene Hubner
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Additional info for Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects
Besides a high resistance against oxidation [196, 197] and a low intrinsic film stress [198, 199], PVD-Ta-Si-N barriers show a better adhesion to copper, promote a stronger <111> Cu texture component, and result in an improved electromigration behavior compared to Ta and TaN films [200, 201]. Furthermore, Ta-Si-N barriers are characterized by a high thermal stability between copper and silicon [202, 203, 204, 205] as well as between copper and SiO2 . According to Kolawa et al. , shallow junction diodes with a Cu (500 nm) / Ta36Si14N50 (120 nm) / Si metallization are thermally stable up to annealing at T = 900 °C for t = ½ h.
In accordance with the XRD results, first significant changes of the GDOES depth profile are detected at T = 1000 °C (Figure 14 (a), curve (2)). Due to a further decrease of the Si signal in the Ta56Si19N25 layer region (Figure 14 (a), curve (3)) at T = 1050 °C and almost constant Ta and N distributions, it is concluded that the Ta2N crystallites grow within the original Ta56Si19N25 layer and that silicon is not incorporated into this Ta nitride. As in the case of the Ta73Si27 film, an increased O signal in the lower part of the original Ta-based layer and a shift of the corresponding SiO2 signal to smaller sputter times point to a reaction with the substrate (Figure 14 (b), curves (3), (4)).
12 10 Reflectivity [arb. 0 Scattering angle θ [°] Figure 6. XRR curves for the as-deposited Cu/Ta-Si-N/SiO2/Si samples (solid lines: experimental data, dotted lines: fit results). As an orientation, the critical angles for total reflection in the case of a Cu layer and a pure Ta layer are given additionally. 34 René Hübner Figure 7 shows the electrical resistivities ρ determined for 10 nm thick Ta-SiN barriers with the four-point probe method. For a Ta73Si27 layer as well as the Npoor Ta62Si20N18 and Ta56Si19N25 layers, the resistivity is small and almost constant (ρ ≈ 240 μΩ cm), while there is an increase in ρ for barriers containing higher N contents.