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By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain

Many nations all over the world block or clear out web content material, denying entry to information—often approximately politics, but additionally in terms of sexuality, tradition, or religion—that they deem too delicate for usual electorate. entry Denied files and analyzes net filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, providing the 1st carefully performed examine of this accelerating pattern. net filtering happens in at the very least 40 states around the globe together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. similar web content material regulate mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S., and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of worldwide web filtering undertaken through the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman heart for net and Society at Harvard legislations institution, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford web Institute at Oxford collage, and the collage of Cambridge) and hoping on paintings by way of neighborhood specialists and an intensive community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, felony, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from various views. Chapters talk about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and boundaries of the expertise that powers it, the relevance of overseas legislations, moral concerns for companies that offer states with the instruments for blockading and filtering, and the results of net filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on net applied sciences for speaking their missions. experiences on net content material rules in 40 assorted international locations persist with, with each one kingdom profile outlining the categories of content material blocked through class and documenting key findings. Contributors : Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain

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Additional resources for Access Denied. Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering [censorship]

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Within these realms, our research found ample evidence of both blocking of the entire domain and selected blocking of subsites, or pages within the domain. Such blocking is discussed in the respective state reports in the appendix to this book. edu was blocked in China in 2002 after our first report of Internet filtering was placed there. ) We have also observed several other means of URL-based filtering. As the results presented in chapter 1 show, several states—including China, Iran, Myanmar, and Yemen—block access to all URLs containing particular strings of letters (such as ‘‘ass’’), whether such banned terms appear in the domain or in superfluous characters at its end.

IP blocking is effective in blocking the intended target and no new equipment needs to be purchased. 3 Blocking techniques IP blocking Azerbaijan DNS tampering Blockpage X X X Bahrain China X Ethiopia X India X X X X Iran X Jordan X Libya Myanmar X X X X Saudi Arabia X Singapore X South Korea X X Sudan X X Syria X Thailand Tunisia X X United Arab Emirates X Uzbekistan* X Vietnam Yemen X X Oman Pakistan Keyword X X X X Blocking behavior included in this table may include international gateway level filtering, and filtering techniques used by different ISPs.

Once filtering is implemented, it is applied to a broad range of content. These different types of filtering activities are often correlated with each other, and can be used as a pretense for expanding government control of cyberspace. Vietnam, for example, uses pornography as its publicly stated reason for filtering, yet blocks little pornography. 6 Social filtering and voice and accountability. AE—United Arab Emirates; AF—Afghanistan; AZ— Azerbaijan; BH—Bahrain; BY—Belarus; CN—China; DZ—Algeria; EG—Egypt; ET—Ethiopia; HK— Hong Kong; IL—Israel; IN—India; IR—Iran; IQ—Iraq; JO—Jordan; KG—Kyrgyzstan; KR—South Korea; KZ—Kazakhstan; LY—Libya; MA—Morocco; MD—Moldova; MM—Burma/Myanmar; MY—Malaysia; NP—Nepal; OM—Oman; PK—Pakistan; PS—Gaza/West Bank; RU—Russia; SA—Saudi Arabia; SD— Sudan; SG—Singapore; SY—Syria; TH—Thailand; TH—Tunisia; TN—Tunisia; TJ—Tajikistan; UA— Ukraine; UZ—Uzbekistan; VE—Venezuela; VN—Vietnam; YE—Yemen; ZW—Zimbabwe.

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