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By Béla Tomka

A Social historical past of Twentieth-Century Europe bargains a scientific review on significant features of social existence, together with inhabitants, kinfolk and families, social inequalities and mobility, the welfare nation, paintings, intake and relaxation, social cleavages in politics, urbanization in addition to schooling, faith and tradition. It additionally addresses significant debates and diverging interpretations of ancient and social study concerning the background of eu societies some time past 100 years.

Organized in ten thematic chapters, this ebook takes an interdisciplinary strategy, applying the equipment and result of not just background, but in addition sociology, demography, economics and political technology. Béla Tomka provides either the range and the commonalities of eu societies taking a look not only to Western ecu nations, yet japanese, critical and Southern eu nations to boot. an ideal creation for all scholars of ecu heritage.

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Extra resources for A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe

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Thus, couples were led to reduce the number of children to create a new balance between costs and benefits. The economic approach to fertility can be challenged on several grounds: it is often static, decontextualized and relies on a narrow notion of rationality. A major result of the European Fertility Project was that fertility decline took place under a wide variety of economic and social conditions. In England, for example, sustained fertility decline began around 1890, when 15 per cent of the male labour force worked in agriculture and 72 per cent of the population already lived in urban areas.

Tuberculosis (the most frequent cause of death among adults in the nineteenth century) belongs to this group of diseases. It was largely eradicated in Western Europe in the first half of the twentieth century, even though its treatment became available only after the Second World War. Another area where developments had contributed from early on to the declining mortality was the growing body of knowledge on the prevention of diseases. Propaganda by volunteer and governmental organizations made information accessible to ever larger masses of people.

Furthermore, the collapse of the baby boom (known as ‘baby bust’) occurred at nearly the same time (around 1964) and in a similarly dramatic manner in most Western European countries. After this, fertility in most Western European societies declined to a great extent, a tendency that often further accelerated in the early 1970s. g. 23 After the mid-1970s, fertility remained at this low level. , Europe’s Population in the 1990s, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, 49–53. countries also showed considerable fertility decline from the 1960s on.

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