Download A Concise History of Bulgaria (2006) (Cambridge Concise by R. J. Crampton PDF

By R. J. Crampton

Richard Crampton offers a normal creation to Bulgaria on the cross-roads of Christendom and Islam. This concise heritage lines the country's development from pre-history, via its days because the middle of a robust medieval empire and 5 centuries of Ottoman rule, to the political upheavals of the 20 th century which resulted in 3 wars. It highlights 1995 to 2004, a necessary interval in which Bulgaria persevered monetary meltdown, set itself heavily at the street to reform, elected its former King as major minister, and at last secured club in NATO and admission to the eu Union. First version Hb (1997) 0-521-56183-3 First variation Pb (1997) 0-521-56719-X

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Internally no strong monarch appeared and by the end of the thirteenth century the kingdom was on the point of disintegration, not least because of incessant feuding among its nobility. It was also beset by another debilitating heresy, hesychism, whose adherents called for the rejection of all social activity and for a life devoted to hesychia, or silent contemplation and prayer; this, its adherents argued, was the only condition in which God’s true light could be perceived. Maybe it was; but it did little to help repel invaders.

The political situation did not reflect the artistic world. In the early fourteenth century Bulgaria was forced for a while to acknowledge Tatar tutelage, and the Magyars were once again a danger, having taken Vidin in 1261, the year in which the Greeks finally drove the Crusaders out of Constantinople. Internally no strong monarch appeared and by the end of the thirteenth century the kingdom was on the point of disintegration, not least because of incessant feuding among its nobility. It was also beset by another debilitating heresy, hesychism, whose adherents called for the rejection of all social activity and for a life devoted to hesychia, or silent contemplation and prayer; this, its adherents argued, was the only condition in which God’s true light could be perceived.

The good times could not last, however, and the final years of Simeon’s reign were again clouded by war, primarily against Constantinople. THE END OF THE FIRST EMPIRE, 896– 1018 Simeon died in 927 having nominated his second son, Petuˆr, as his successor. Petuˆr’s reign was of exceptional duration – he remained king until 970 – but these were years of decline for Bulgaria. As usual, there were wars to be fought, though these were now defensive rather than expansionist, the chief threat being the Magyars in the north.

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